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Paul Schlicht told his first-issue readers inside of the front cover that his publication was a "first-class family magazine", then adding, "There will be a department devoted exclusively to the concerns of women, with articles on fashions, on household decoration, on cooking, and the care and management of children, etc. There was also a department for the younger members of the family. John Brisben Walker acquired the magazine in ;  that same year, he dispatched Elizabeth Bisland on a race around the world against Nellie Bly to draw attention to the magazine.
Under John Brisben Walker's ownership, E. Walker, formerly with Harper's Monthly , took over as the new editor, introducing colour illustrations, serials and book reviews, it became a leading market for fiction, featuring such authors as Annie Besant , Ambrose Bierce , Willa Cather , Theodore Dreiser , Rudyard Kipling , Jack London , Edith Wharton , and H. In , Cosmopolitan announced plans for a free correspondence school: "No charge of any kind will be made to the student. All expenses for the present will be borne by the Cosmopolitan.
No conditions, except a pledge of a given number of hours of study. Also in , H. Olive Schreiner contributed a lengthy two-part article about the Boer War in the September  and October  issues of Other contributors during this period included O. Henry ,  A. Jack London 's novella, " The Red One ", was published in the October issue  two years after London's death  , and a constant presence from —18 was Arthur B.
Reeve , with 82 stories featuring Craig Kennedy , the "scientific detective". Hearst formed Cosmopolitan Productions also known as Cosmopolitan Pictures , a film company based in New York City from to , then Hollywood until ; the vision for this film company was to make films from stories published in the magazine. Cosmopolitan magazine was officially titled as Hearst's International Combined with Cosmopolitan from until , but was simply referred to as Cosmopolitan.
In June it was shortened to Hearst's and was ultimately titled Hearst's International in May In order to spare serious cutbacks at San Simeon , Hearst merged the magazine Hearst's International with Cosmopolitan effective March , but while the Cosmopolitan title on the cover remained at a typeface of eight-four points , over time span the typeface of the Hearst's International decreased to thirty-six points and then to a barely legible twelve points.
After Hearst died in , the Hearst's International disappeared from the magazine cover altogether in April Emphasizing fiction in the s, it was subtitled The Four-Book Magazine since the first section had one novelette, six or eight short stories, two serials, six to eight articles and eight or nine special features, while the other three sections featured two novels and a digest of current non-fiction books. During World War II, sales peaked at 2,, The magazine began to run less fiction during the s. Circulation dropped to slightly over a million by , a time when magazines were overshadowed during the rise of paperbacks and television; the Golden Age of magazines came to an end as mass market , general interest publications gave way to special interest magazines targeting specialized audiences.
Cosmo was widely known as a "bland" and boring magazine by critics. Cosmopolitan's circulation continued to decline for another decade until Helen Gurley Brown became chief editor in She died in at the age of 90,  her vision is still evident in the current design of Cosmopolitan Magazine. The magazine set itself apart by frankly discussing sexuality from the point of view that women could and should enjoy sex without guilt; the first issue under Helen Gurley Brown, July ,  featured an article on the birth control pill ,  which had gone on the market exactly five years earlier.
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This was not Brown's first publication dealing with sexually liberated women, her advice book, Sex and the Single Girl , had been a bestseller. Brown sent the message that a woman should have men complement her life, not take it over.
Enjoying sex without shame was also a message she incorporated in both publications. In Brown's early years as editor, the magazine received heavy criticism. In at the feminist Miss America protest , protestors symbolically threw a number of feminine products into a "Freedom Trash Can. It was published twice in as a supplement to Cosmopolitan.
The magazine, and in particular its cover stories, have become increasingly sexually explicit in tone, and covers have models wearing revealing clothes. Kroger , the second largest grocery chain in the United States after Walmart, used to cover up Cosmopolitan at checkout stands because of complaints about sexually inappropriate headlines;  the UK edition of Cosmopolitan , which began in , was the first Cosmopolitan magazine to be branched out to another country.
It was well known for sexual explicitness, with strong sexual language, male nudity, and coverage of such subjects as rape. It shut down in December The magazine currently features topics including sex, relationships, beauty, fashion, and health. There are 64 worldwide editions of Cosmopolitan , and the magazine is published in 35 languages, with distribution in more than countries making Cosmopolitan the largest-selling young women's magazine in the world;  some international editions are published in partnerships, such as licenses or joint ventures, with established publishing houses in each local market.
In October , Bauer Media Group announced that after 45 years, publication of the Australian edition of Cosmopolitan would stop due to the commercial viability of the magazine no longer being sustainable. Cosmopolitan has since the s been a women's magazine discussing such topics as sex, health, fitness, and fashion.
Cosmopolitan also has a section called "Ask Him Anything" where a male writer answers readers' questions about men and dating. There is debate whether the responses in this section are representative of the majority of men or only based on the views of the small number of male writers. Cosmopolitan has found popularity in its newfound medium, the "discover" section on Snapchat. Cosmopolitan's "discover" has over 3 million readers a day.
For over a decade, the February issue has featured this award. Cosmopolitan' s November issue features the hottest bachelors from all 50 states. Pictures and profiles of all the Bachelors are posted on www. A team of Cosmopolitan editors then selects the Bachelor of the Year, who is announced at an annual party and media event in New York; the 50 bachelors generally appear on programs such as The Today Show. In the May issue of Cosmopolitan , the magazine launched the Practice Safe Sun campaign, an initiative aimed at fighting skin cancer by asking readers to stop all forms of tanning other than tanning from a bottle.
Cosmopolitan UK launched the Cosmo Blog Awards  in ; the awards attracted more than 15, entries and winning and highly commended blogs were voted for in several categories including beauty, fashion, lifestyle, and celebrity. The awards launched in August and nominations are open until August 31, All UK-based bloggers and blogs written by British bloggers abroad with a British perspective can be entered. In May , Cosmopolitan UK announced they were launching their first ever fragrance; this is considered a first in the magazine industry.
Named 'Cosmopolitan, The Fragrance', the perfume takes on the notion of their much-loved phrase 'Fun, Fearless Female' and was set to launch in September. Cosmopolitan played a role in passing the Seventeenth Amendment to the US Constitution , which allowed for the popular election of Senators.
In September , Cosmopolitan began endorsing political candidates; the endorsements are based on "established criteria" agreed upon by the magazine's editors. Specifically, Cosmopolitan will only endorse candidates that support equal pay laws , legal abortion , free contraceptives , gun control , and oppose voter identification laws. Amy Odell, editor of Cosmopolitan.
However, only two of them won their respective political campaigns. In its January issue, Cosmopolitan ran a feature claiming that women had almost no reason to worry about contracting HIV long after the best available medical science indicated otherwise; the piece claimed that unprotected sex with an HIV-positive man did not put women at risk of infection and went on to state that "most heterosexuals are not at risk" and that it was impossible to transmit HIV in the missionary position.
One of the issue's articles, When a Wife Discovers Her Husband Is Bi-Sexual , promoted the ' bisexual bridge' theory;  the bisexual bridge theory suggests that bisexual husbands are covertly having extramarital affairs with men who may be infected with HIV. While considered a magazine for adult women, Cosmopolitan has been accused of subtly targeting children.
Victoria Hearst, a granddaughter of William Randolph Hearst founder of Cosmopolitan' s parent company and sister of Patty Hearst , has lent her support to a campaign which seeks to classify Cosmopolitan as harmful under the guidelines of "Material Harmful to Minors" laws. Hearst, the founder of an evangelical Colorado church called Praise Him Ministries,  states that "the magazine promotes a lifestyle that can be dangerous to women's emotional and physical well being, it should never be sold to anyone under 18".
Cosmopolitan was criticized by Katie Yoder of the Campaign Life Coalition for its September decision to exclude pro-life candidates in its endorsements, stating "Yes, Cosmo deeply cares about 'all young women. In , Walmart announced that Cosmopolitan would be removed from checkout lines after news released by the National Center on Sexual Exploitation labeling the magazine as "sexually explicit material".
Charles Edward Russell Charles Edward Russell was an American journalist, opinion columnist, newspaper editor, political activist. The author of a number of books of biography and social commentary, he won the Pulitzer Prize for Biography or Autobiography for The American Orchestra and Theodore Thomas. Russell is remembered as one of three co-founders of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, he was born in Davenport, Iowa , a transportation center on the Mississippi River on the far eastern border of the state.
His father, Edward Russell , was editor of a noted abolitionist ; the Russell family was staunchly religious Christian Evangelicals , with Charles' grandfather a Baptist minister and his father a Sunday school superintendent and a leader of the Iowa Young Men's Christian Association. Russells attended St. Johnsbury Academy , in St. Johnsbury , for his high school education and worked under his father at the newspaper. In he appears as one of the editors of The Coming Nation, a socialist newspaper published by J. Wayland and Fred D. Warren in Girard, Kansas. Russell felt strongly about the well-being of others after seeing the struggles that people all over New York had to undergo like the unfair working conditions and wages that people from all walks of life were forced to endure.
People were placed into cramped working spaces with few, if any, breaks. Aside from the physical conditions, most big employers did not value the well-being of their employees immigrants. With those horrendous mental images in place, Russell became inspired. Russell was one of a group of journalists at the turn of the 20th century who were called muckrakers , they investigated and reported not with cold detachment but with feeling and rage about the horrors of capitalism. The muckraker movement helped to jumpstart numerous reforms that included prison conditions and church-building conditions.
In Soldier for the Common Good , an unpublished dissertation on Russell's life, author Donald Bragaw wrote, "Historian Louis Filler has called Russell the leader of the muckrakers for contributing'important studies in every field in which they ventured. Russell's reports on the corrupt practices and inhuman conditions at Chicago stock yards were the inspiration for Upton Sinclair's powerful novel The Jungle, which caused a national uproar that led to inspection reforms. It was detrimental to the church's reputation, as it accused the church of being one of the leading slum landlords in New York City ; that accusation resulted in the church taking swift action to the report by cleaning up or selling the worst of their properties.
After traveling all over the world in investigative journalism, Russell's beliefs about capitalism began to be stronger and stronger, he believed that capitalism itself was quite faulty and that the financial endeavors of the United States that led the economy were corrupt. As his convictions became deeper, Russell recognized that his beliefs were in line with that of the Socialist Party, leading him to join in Wells , W.
Russell's participation in the founding of the NAACP stemmed from his experiences with violence and racism as a child. One of the most memorable experiences included his father nearly being hanged for opposing slavery. Russell served and participated on the board of directors for the NAACP for the remainder of his life. In , Russell joined the Socialist Party of America. Russell was its candidate for Governor of New York in and , for U. Russell's belief that Germany was an undeniable threat to the US in made him unexpectedly come out in support of President Woodrow Wilson's war "preparedness campaign.
Its leader, Eugene Debs believed that Russell's decision to support Wilson's move for rearmament cost Russell the party's presidential nomination in ; that year, Russell separated from his party and became a part of a group known as "prowar socialists. Debs disagreed profoundly with Russell on the issue but applauded him for the courage of his convictions.
Russell would be expelled from the Socialist Party in for supporting American intervention in the First World War. Aligning himself with Sinclair, among others in the right wing of the party, Russell continued to agita.
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His influence on Western theatre and politics extended from the s to his death and beyond, he wrote more than sixty plays, including major works such as Man and Superman and Saint Joan. With a range incorporating both contemporary satire and historical allegory , Shaw became the leading dramatist of his generation, in was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature. Born in Dublin , Shaw moved to London in , where he struggled to establish himself as a writer and novelist , embarked on a rigorous process of self-education.
By the mids he had become a respected music critic. Following a political awakening, he joined the gradualist Fabian Society and became its most prominent pamphleteer. Shaw had been writing plays for years before his first public success and the Man in Influenced by Henrik Ibsen , he sought to introduce a new realism into English-language drama, using his plays as vehicles to disseminate his political and religious ideas. By the early twentieth century his reputation as a dramatist was secured with a series of critical and popular successes that included Major Barbara , The Doctor's Dilemma and Caesar and Cleopatra.
Shaw's expressed views were contentious, he courted unpopularity by denouncing both sides in the First World War as culpable, although not a republican , castigated British policy on Ireland in the postwar period. These stances had no lasting effect on his productivity as a dramatist.
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In he provided the screenplay for a filmed version of Pygmalion for which he received an Academy Award , his appetite for politics and controversy remained undiminished. In the final decade of his life he made fewer public statements, but continued to write prolifically until shortly before his death, aged ninety-four, having refused all state honours, including the Order of Merit in Since Shaw's death scholarly and critical opinion has varied about his works, but he has been rated as second only to Shakespeare among British dramatists.
The word Shavian has entered the language as encapsulating Shaw's ideas and his means of expressing them. Shaw was born at 3 Upper Synge Street in a lower-middle-class part of Dublin, he was the youngest child and only son of Lucinda Elizabeth Shaw. His elder siblings were Elinor Agnes; the Shaw family was of English descent and belonged to the dominant Protestant Ascendancy in Ireland. His relatives secured him a sinecure in the civil service, from which he was pensioned off in the early s. In he married Bessie Gurly.
If, as Holroyd and others surmise, George's motives were mercenary he was disappointed, as Bessie brought him little of her family's money, she came to despise her ineffectual and drunken husband, with whom she shared what their son described as a life of "shabby-genteel poverty". By the time of Shaw's birth, his mother had become close to George John Lee, a flamboyant figure well known in Dublin's musical circles. Shaw retained a lifelong obsession; the young Shaw suffered no harshness from his mother, but he recalled that her indifference and lack of affection hurt him deeply.
He found solace in the music. Lee was a teacher of singing; the Shaws' house was filled with music, with frequent gatherings of singers and players. In , Lee and the Shaws agreed to share a house, No. Shaw, a sensitive boy, found the less salubrious parts of Dublin shocking and distressing, was happier at the cottage.
Lee's students gave him books, which the young Shaw read avidly. Between and , Shaw attended four schools, his experiences as a schoolboy left him disillusioned with formal education: "Schools and schoolmasters", he wrote, were "prisons and turnkeys in which children are kept to prevent them disturbing and chaperoning their parents. During this period, Shaw was known as " George Shaw ". In June , Lee left Dublin for London and never returned. A fortnight Bessie followed him. Shaw's explanation of why his mother followed Lee was that without the la. She is best remembered today for her novel The Story of an African Farm , acclaimed since its first publication in for the bold manner in which it deals with some of the burning issues of the day, including agnosticism , existential independence, the professional aspirations of women, the elemental nature of life on the colonial frontier.
In more recent studies she has been identified as an advocate for those sidelined by the forces of British Imperialism , such as the Afrikaners , other South African groups like Blacks and Indians — to name but a few. Although she showed interest in socialism , pacifism and feminism amongst other things, her true views escape restrictive categorisations, her published works and other surviving writings promote implicit values like moderation and understanding amongst all peoples and avoid the pitfalls of political radicalism which she consciously eschewed.
Although she may be called a lifelong freethinker , she continued to adhere to the spirit of the Christian Bible and developed a secular version of the worldview of her missionary parents, with mystical elements.
Karel Schoeman , the South African historian and leading authority on Schreiner's life in South Africa , has written that she was an outstanding figure in a South African context, albeit not quite the same abroad. Schoeman acknowledges that while The Story of an African Farm is by no means perfect, it is still unique and gripping to the modern reader, he outlines the basic pattern of her life which may serve as a useful guide to both this article and the pursuit of further interest in the subject: From a chronological viewpoint, Olive Schreiner's life shows an interesting pattern.
After she spent the first twenty-five thereof in South Africa After this she lived in South Africa for twenty-four years, the time of her friendship with Rhodes, the Anglo-Boer war and her growing involvement in issues like racism and the lot of women, after which another exile followed in England for seven years. Schreiner should be remembered for the novel of her mature years, From Man To Man Or Perhaps Only, which she did not complete revising before her death.
It was published posthumously in , in an edition produced by her husband, Samuel Cronwright-Schreiner, has been re-edited and published by University of Cape Town Press. This edition corrects the proofreading errors that marred previous editions, it provides another ending to the novel, in Schreiner's own words, besides the one her husband summarised. From exploring white women's confinement to domesticity in late 19th century South Africa and England, the novel expands its gaze to include black women and girls whose presence informs the central character's struggle to re-create herself and educate her children against the racism and sexism of the time.
She was named after her three older brothers, Oliver and Emile, who died before she was born. Her childhood was a harsh one as her father was loving and gentle, though impractical, which led to difficulties for the family. He remained as headmaster until late , but continued to run the junior school until , he was interred in the town. When Olive was six, Gottlob transferred to Healdtown in the Eastern Cape to run the Wesleyan training institute there; as with so many of his other projects, he was not up to the task and was expelled in disgrace for trading against missionary regulations.
He was forced to make his own living for the first time in his life, tried a business venture. Again, he was insolvent within a year; the family lived in abject poverty as a result. However, Olive was not to remain with her parents for long. When her older brother Theophilus was appointed headmaster in Cradock in , she went to live with him along with two of her siblings.
A Virgo strives to work hard and achieve a great deal, meaning a relationship with a Capricorn would be a successful one, where as Cancer can offer softer characteristics to dilute the pressure a Capricorn puts on themselves. Pisces February 19 - March Pisces is a deep, emotional and sensitive sign - which means Cancer's compassionate, protective and proactive side makes them a great pair. A Pisces will happily hand the reigns of the relationship over to a Scorpio, meaning they take the lead and wear the trousers, whilst matching a Pisces with another Pisces can create a romantic, dreamy and fulfilling relationship.
Taurus April 20 - May Taurus are head strong, powerful and sensual beings, which makes them a great pairing with a Virgo - who appreciate the strength and determination of a Taurus and offer hard work in return. Pair a Taurus and another Taurus and their strong desire to maintain a certain level of perfection could act as a total blessing or a curse. Originally appeared on Cosmopolitan.
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